9. Furthermore, they said: Every time that the righteous depart this world, there is likewise annulled from this world all the harsh decrees, and the death of the righteous brings forgiveness for the sins of the generation. Therefore, we read the portion dealing with the sons of Aaron on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) to bring forgiveness for the sins of Yisrael. The Holy One, blessed be He, says, 'Contemplate the death of these pious ones, and it will be accredited for you, as if you offered sacrifice this day to attain forgiveness.' We have learned that as long as Yisrael will be in exile and neither be able to offer offerings on this day nor will they be able to offer the two goats, they will at least have the memory of the two sons of Aaron. Thus, it will serve as atonement for them.
28. We have learned that Rabbi Yosi said: It was established to read this chapter OF THE SONS OF AARON on this day of Yom Kippur, in order to bring atonement for Yisrael in exile WHO ARE UNABLE TO OFFER SACRIFICES. For this reason the order OF SACRIFICES for this day, YOM KIPPUR, was established here IN THE PORTION ABOUT THE SONS OF AARON, AND RECITING IT COMES IN PLACE OF SACRIFICE. FURTHERMORE, the deaths of the sons of Aaron atone for Yisrael.
29. We also learn from here that every person who has afflictions visited upon him from his Master, they serve as atonement for sins. All who have distress for affliction brought upon the just will have their sins pass away from this world. For this reason, on this day, YOM KIPPUR, we read about, "After the death of the two sons of Aaron" so that the congregation listens and feels distress for the pious who were lost and thus the congregation have their sins forgiven. Of him, who feels sorrow for the righteous who perished, or sheds tears for them, the Holy One, blessed be He, announces, "And your iniquity is taken away, and your sin is purged" (Yeshayah 6:7). Furthermore, he is reassured that his children will not die during his lifetime and it is written about him, "He shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days" (Yeshayah 53:10).
130. We have learned that "And he shall take from the congregation, of the children of Yisrael two kids of the goats for a sin offering" (Vayikra 16:5). THE VERSE SAYS, "from the congregation." THIS IS TO TEACH that they should buy it with everyone's MONEY, and atonement will thus come to all, as all sins of Yisrael are impending here and all will attain atonement from this act. THEREFORE, it is not enough TO TAKE MONEY from one person. From where is it taken? The money is taken from the public fund boxes in the sanctuary, and they bring THE GOATS with this money, which is the contributed property of everyone.
145. "And he shall go out to the altar that is before Hashem, and make atonement for it" (Vayikra 16:18). Rabbi Yehuda opened the discussion saying, "A psalm of Asaf. El, Elohim, Hashem, has spoken, and called the earth from the rising of the sun to the going down thereof" (Tehilim 50:1). We have learned that 1,550 tens of thousands of singers sing to the Holy One, blessed be He, with the first light of day, and 1,548 with the FIRST LIGHT OF moon, MEANING NIGHT. Another 1,590 tens of thousands SING PRAISE at the time of twilight.
176. Rabbi Yehuda said that it is written, "And he shall go out to the altar that is before Hashem, and make atonement for it" (Vayikra 16:18). "To the altar" is WRITTEN without further qualification, HINTING AT THE CELESTIAL ALTAR, NAMELY THE SECRET OF YESOD OF MALCHUT. As it is done below, so it is done above. All is intertwined one with one THROUGH THE ALTAR THAT IS YESOD OF MALCHUT. We have learned that just as on this day the priest procures forgiveness here below, IN THE TEMPLE, so it is above. When the priest here performs his service, so does the celestial priest, REPRESENTING CHESED OF ZEIR ANPIN THAT POURS ABUNDANCE TO MALCHUT. There is no SERVICE above, WHICH IS THE SECRET OF CHESED POURING TO MALCHUT, until there is SERVICE OF THE PRIEST below, since the holiness of the supernal King starts to rise from below. All worlds are in one unity before the Holy One, blessed be He.
179. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, 'O Yisrael, if you would only know how many troops, how many hosts hold up THEIR SERVICE because of you ABOVE, you would have realized that you do not deserve to be in this world even one instant.' In spite of this, it is written, "And yet for all that, when they are in the land of their enemies, I will not cast them away..." (Vayikra 26:44). THEREFORE, in "And he shall go out to the altar," "the altar" is written unspecified AND DOES NOT NECESSARILY INDICATE THE LOWER ALTAR IN THE TEMPLE. ALSO, "that is before Hashem," is again unqualified, NOT NECESSARILY IN THE TEMPLE. YET THE ALTAR ALLUDES TO THE SUPERNAL ALTAR, WHICH IS MALCHUT THAT IS BEFORE HASHEM, ZEIR ANPIN. Afterwards, it reads, "And make atonement for it," then "offer his burnt offering, and the burnt offering of the people..." (Vayikra 16:24). HE ASKS: IF THE ALLUSION IS TO MALCHUT, then what is the meaning of, "And make atonement for it?" IS ATONEMENT APPLICABLE ABOVE? Rabbi Yosi said, "AND MAKE ATONEMENT FOR IT" MEANS to awaken Chesed in the world first.
180. We have learned that it is written, "And he shall make atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Yisrael" (Ibid. 16). HE QUESTIONS: What is meant by "and he shall make atonement for the holy place?" However, Rabbi Elazar said: Behold, we learned that the wicked cause a defect above and awaken Judgments. They cause the sanctuary to become unclean and the mighty snake begins to reveal itself. At that point, Judgments are awakened in the world. On this day, the priest needs to bring purification to all and to crown His holy Sfirah, NAMELY CHESED OF ZEIR ANPIN, which is the head of the King, AS CHESED IS HIS FIRST SFIRAH, in order that the King come to dwell with the Queen, NAMELY MALCHUT. As the head of the King travels, all move along, MEANING ALL HIS SFIROT, to join with the Queen and instill joy and blessings in the world.
181. It is apparent that perfection above and below depend on the priest. If his Sfirah is awakened, all are awakened and perfection is present. Therefore, it is written, "And he shall make atonement for the holy place." At first, "he shall make atonement for the holy place," MEANING to increase peace in the world and multiply joy in the world. When there is the joy of the joining of the King and Queen, all courtiers of the palace and all that serve show joy. All sins done before the King are atoned for, as it is written, "That you may be clean from all your sins before Hashem" (Ibid. 30). For this reason, it is written, "And there shall be no man in the Tent of Meeting when he goes in to make atonement in the holy place, until he comes out" (Ibid. 17). This is at the time when he enters to join them. At that hour, when the King and Queen are joined, he will "have made atonement for himself, and for his household" (Ibid.).
188. Rabbi Yitzchak said: When the Holy King remembers Yisrael for His Name's sake and returns the Queen to her position, it is written, "And there shall be no man in the Tent of Meeting when he goes in to make atonement in the holy place" (Vayikra 16:17). At the time the priest enters to unify the Holy Name and makes atonement in the holy place to join the King with the Queen, it is then written, "And there shall be no man in the Tent of Meeting..."
194. The voice, NAMELY ZEIR ANPIN, THE CENTRAL COLUMN, joins with the priest, MEANING THE PRIEST BECOMES A CHARIOT TO ZEIR ANPIN. He says to them, "That you may be clean" (Vayikra 16:30). BEING A CHARIOT TO THE CENTRAL COLUMN, HE CAN BRING ON THEM THE ILLUMINATION OF CHOCHMAH THAT BRINGS FORGIVENESS OF SINS AND CLEANSING. Neither the people nor any other priest say, "That you may be clean," except the High Priest when the voice is attached to him, MEANING ZEIR ANPIN. THEN HE IS CAPABLE OF BRINGING ATONEMENT ON THEM AND HE PROCLAIMS "THAT YOU MAY BE CLEAN."
195. We have learned "from all your sins before Hashem" (Ibid.). HE QUESTIONS: If he already wrote, "TO CLEANSE YOU from all your sins," why WRITE "before Hashem THAT YOU MAY BE CLEAN?" Rabbi Yitzchak said, "THAT YOU MAY BE CLEAN...before (lit. 'in the face of') Hashem," MEANING THE ILLUMINATION OF THE FACE OF HASHEM. AS THE ILLUMINATION OF HASHEM'S FACE IS THE SECRET OF THE ILLUMINATION OF CHOCHMAH, ACCORDING TO THE SECRET MEANING OF THE VERSE, "A MAN'S WISDOM MAKES HIS FACE TO SHINE" (KOHELET 8:1). IT ATONES FOR SINS AND BRINGS CLEANSING.
223. "You shall afflict your souls..." (Vayikra 16:29). It says "your souls" in order that Yisrael be found meritorious before the Holy King, and meet with the goodwill of the Holy One, blessed be He. They must cling to Him in order that all their sins may be forgiven. Therefore, whoever eats and drinks on the ninth day and pleasures his soul with food and drink will find himself with the affliction on the tenth day doubled, and it will be considered as if he fasted on the ninth and tenth. "Your souls" includes all, body and soul, to surrender on this day in order to have atonement for sins.
239. We have learned that it is written, "Also (lit. 'but') on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement...and you shall afflict your souls" (Vayikra 23:27). It is also written, "And this shall be a statute forever to you: that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls" (Vayikra 16:29). IN THE LATTER IT DOES NOT SAY, "BUT ON THE TENTH." What is meant by "but ON THE TENTH" that is written in this verse? He replied to him: It comes to exclude, FOR WHEREVER THE WORD "BUT (HEB. ACH)" IS WRITTEN, ITS PURPOSE IS TO EXCLUDE. Since it is written, "And you shall afflict your souls: on the ninth day of the month" (Vayikra 23:32), so it says later "but on the tenth day." It should merely say, 'but tenth day,' ONLY IT TEACHES US that with the tenth rests the whole matter OF "YOU SHALL AFFLICT YOUR SOULS," YET NOT ON THE NINTH DAY OF THE MONTH.
244. Before He created the world, He created repentance. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to repentance (WHICH IS THE SECRET OF BINAH CALLED REPENTANCE): 'I wish to create man in the world on the condition if they turn to you from their sins, you will be ready to forgive their sins and render atonement.' At every hour, repentance is available for mankind. When mankind repents from their iniquities, this repentance, NAMELY BINAH, returns to the Holy One, blessed be He, MEANING EXTENDS MOCHIN TO ZEIR ANPIN and atones for all. The Judgments are all subdued and mitigated, and man is purified of his sins.
406. Rabbi Shimon said: The Holy One, blessed be He, said, 'Bring atonement before Me on the New Moon,' BECAUSE I HAVE REDUCED THE MOON, MALCHUT. "Before Me" surely MEANS ON MY BEHALF, in order to remove the serpent FROM NURSING FROM MALCHUT, and to perfume the one who needs to, NAMELY MALCHUT. "Before (lit. 'upon') Me" TO BE EXPLAINED, as "Serafim stood above him" (Yeshayah 6:2), WHICH DOES NOT MEAN OVER HIM, HEAVEN FORBID, BUT FOR HIS SAKE AND FOR HIS GLORY. HERE TOO, "UPON ME" IS TO BE EXPLAINED AS 'FOR MY SAKE.' Therefore, it is written regarding Korah, "Who are gathered together are against (lit. 'upon') Hashem" (Bemidbar 16:11), WHICH ALSO MEANS "FOR HASHEM," MEANING for them, BECAUSE OF THE SIN OF KORAH AND HIS CONGREGATION, someone was awakened from their side, MEANING THE OTHER SIDE, TO BLEMISH HASHEM. Also here, "Bring before Me your atonement" upon Me literally, MEANING FOR MY SAKE AND FOR ME, in order that MALCHUT will have fragrance and the serpent will pass from her and not be found where it dwelt, MEANING IN A PLACE OF LACK DUE TO THE DIMINISHED MOON. What is all this for? Because I reduced the moon, NAMELY MALCHUT, and he who should not has sway over her. Hence, "also you shall not approach to a woman in the impurity of her menstrual flow" (Vayikra 18:19), AS IN THE ADJACENT PARAGRAPH.
409. It is the same with the renewal of the moon, MEANING AT THE NEW MOON. The sun, DENOTING ZEIR ANPIN, shines on it with the joy of the light of Atika above. For this reason, the sacrifice of the New Moon is above in order to bring fragrance to all, and joy should be prevalent in the world. Therefore, 'bring atonement before Me.' This wording is literal IN ORDER TO AWAKEN THE UNION.