167. As Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Yosi were walking together, Rabbi Yosi said, What you stated is true, that Jacob is the most perfect of the fathers. He includes all sides, NAMELY, RIGHT AND LEFT. For that reason, he was called Israel, as it is written, "Your name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be your name, and He called his name Israel" (Beresheet 35:10). Why then, HE INSISTED, does the Holy One, blessed be He, repeatedly call him Jacob as he was commonly called before? What then is the meaning of, "your name shall not be called any more Jacob?"
168. He replies, You have spoken well. THIS IS A GOOD QUESTION. He then quoted the verse, "Hashem shall go forth as a mighty man, He shall stir up ardor like a man of war" (Yeshayah 42:13), which has already been explained. Yet come and behold, it is written, "as a mighty man" instead of 'a mighty man,' and "like a man of war" instead of 'a man of war.'
169. HE EXPLAINS, We learned that Hashem refers uniformly to Mercy, and the Name of the Holy One, blessed be He, is Yud Hei Vav Hei, as it is written, "I am Hashem: that is My name" (Yeshayah 42:8). Yet we see that He is sometimes called Elohim, which everywhere alludes to Judgment. Whenever there are many righteous in the world, His name is Yud Hei Vav Hei and He is called Mercy. But when the wicked multiply in the world, His name is Elohim, and He is thus called. When Jacob is not among his enemies or in a foreign country, he is called Israel, but when he is among foes or out of Yisrael, he is called Jacob.
170. He said to him: The matter is not fully explained, because it is written, "shall not be called any more," yet we do call him Jacob when he is among enemies or in a foreign land. Come and study the verse, "And Jacob dwelt in the land in which his father had sojourned, in the land of Canaan" (Beresheet 37:1). He was not in a foreign land, but HE IS NEVERTHELESS CALLED JACOB.
171. He replied, In the beginning I said, that, just as the Holy One, blessed be He, is sometimes called Yud Hei Vav Hei and sometimes Elohim, ACCORDING TO THE GRADE, so Jacob is sometimes called Israel and sometimes Jacob, all according to certain grades. And the words, "shall not be called any more Jacob," MEAN THAT he will not have this name only, JACOB, BUT TWO NAMES, JACOB AND ISRAEL, ACCORDING TO HIS GRADE.
172. He said, So it was with Abraham, about whom it is written, "Neither shall your name any more be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham" (Beresheet 17:5). YET THIS DOES NOT MEAN THAT HE WILL BE CALLED BY TWO NAMES, ABRAM AND ABRAHAM, BUT RATHER ONLY ABRAHAM. He answers, The scripture says, "but YOUR NAME SHALL BE (HEB. VEHAYAH) ABRAHAM," therefore only this name remained. Yet here the word "vehayah" is not used. Rather, it reads, "but Israel shall be (Heb. yih'yeh) your name." It does not read, 'Israel shall be (Doesn't make sense - can we find something in English that corresponds better to the Hebrew?) (Heb. vehayah) your name.' ACCORDING TO THIS, it is sufficient to call him Israel on only one occasion, TO FULFILL THE VERSE, WHICH READS, "BUT ISRAEL SHALL BE YOUR NAME." This is all the more true because although he is sometimes called Jacob, there are other times he is called Israel. When his sons are adorned with priests and Levites, he will be called by the name ISRAEL for all times.