1. "And Hashem said to Moses, 'Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart...'" (Shemot 10:1). Rabbi Yehuda opened the discussion, saying: "Happy are the people that know the joyful note; they shall walk, Hashem, in the light of Your countenance" (Tehilim 89:16). How much should people walk in the ways of the Holy One, blessed be He, and observe the commandments of the Torah in order to merit the World to Come, and that they may be delivered from all Accusers above and below. For as there are Accusers in the world below, so there are Adversaries above whose function is to ACCUSE people.
2. Those who observe the commandments of the Torah and walk the right path in fear of their Master, good Advocates are situated above them, as it is written, "If there be an angel over him, an interpreter, one among a thousand...then He is gracious to him, and says, 'Deliver him from going down to the pit: I have found a ransom'" (Iyov 33:23). Therefore, fortunate is he who observes the commandments of the Torah.
3. Rabbi Chiya said to him, If so, why is it necessary to have an angel to intercede for the person, seeing it is written, "For Hashem will be your confidence and will keep your foot from being caught" (Mishlei 3:26). "Hashem will guard you from all evil" (Tehilim 121:7). For the Holy One, blessed be He, sees everything that a man does in the world, both good and evil. And so He says, "'can any hide himself in secret places that I shall not see him?' Says Hashem" (Yirmeyah 23:24). IF THIS IS SO, WHY DO WE NEED AN ANGEL TO INTERCEDE OR ACCUSE?
4. Rabbi Yehuda said, Certainly it is so THAT THE HOLY ONE, BLESSED BE HE, SEES EVERYTHING. But it is written, "And touch his bone and his flesh" (Iyov 2:5), and "although you did move me against him to destroy him without cause" (Ibid. 3). This shows that permission was granted to the Other Side to accuse in worldly matters, and they should be given into his hands. All these things are to stay concealed before the Holy One, blessed be He, and you have no right to follow them TO INVESTIGATE THEM, because they are the statutes of the Holy One, blessed be He. Humans are not permitted to be particular about them except for those truly Righteous who know the secrets of the Torah and go in the way of wisdom to know these hidden things in the Torah. THIS IS THE MEANING OF, "HAPPY ARE THE PEOPLE THAT KNOW THE JOYFUL NOTE (LIT. 'TRUAH')" (TEHILIM 89:16), THAT IS, THEY KNOW THE WAYS OF BLESSED HASHEM, AND THAT HE BRINGS EVIL AND GOOD THROUGH MESSENGERS, ALTHOUGH HE CAN DO IT HIMSELF. SO IN THE PASSAGE, "GO IN TO PHARAOH," THE HOLY ONE, BLESSED BE HE, WANTED PHARAOH TO LET THE CHILDREN OF YISRAEL GO, EVEN THOUGH HE WAS ABLE TO TAKE THEM OUT AGAINST HIS WILL.
5. Rabbi Elazar opened the discussion, saying: "Now there was a day when the sons of Elohim came to present themselves before Hashem, and the Adversary came also among them" (Iyov 1:6). "Now there was a day," refers to Rosh Hashanah, the day that the Holy One, blessed be He, rises to judge the world. Similarly, "And it happened one day, that he came there" (II Melachim 4:11). That day was the holy day of Rosh Hashanah.
6. "And the sons of Elohim came." These are the appointed ministers whose mission in the world is to observe the actions of people. "To present themselves before Hashem," as it is written, "And all the hosts of heaven standing by Him on His right hand and on His left" (I Melachim 22:19). But in the passage, "To present themselves before Hashem," I have found the love of the Holy One, blessed be He, toward Yisrael. These messengers who are appointed to observe the actions of people wander around IN THE WORLD and take all these actions, and on the day that Judgment rises to judge the world, they became accuses so they are DENOUNCING people. Come and behold, of all the nations in the world, THE MINISTERS stand to watch over the activities of Yisrael only, because they are the children of the Holy One, blessed be He.
7. When the actions of the children of Yisrael were found to be improper, the appointed messengers stand against these actions of Yisrael, and stand by Hashem. For when the children of Yisrael perform actions that are not good, they weaken, so to speak, the strength of the Holy One, blessed be He. When they perform good actions, they give might and power to the Holy One, blessed be He. Of this, it is written, "Give strength to Elohim" (Tehilim 68:35). How IS STRENGTH GIVEN? By good actions. Therefore, all the appointed ministers gathered by (lit. 'upon' - Why not write "upon," then, instead of "by?") Hashem on that day. 'Upon' Hashem most certainly, for they gathered TO BRING ACCUSATIONS upon Yisrael, WHICH AMOUNTS TO having gathered against Hashem TO WEAKEN HIS STRENGTH, SO TO SPEAK.
8. "The Adversary also came among them." The word "also" adds THE CHILDREN OF ELOHIM, because they all came to accuse Yisrael, and THE ADVERSARY also joined them because he was the greatest slanderer of them all. As soon as the Holy One, blessed be He, saw that they all came to accuse, immediately, "And Hashem said to the Adversary, 'From where do you come?'" (Iyov 1:7), SINCE HE WAS THE GREATEST OF THEM ALL. HE ASKS, Did not the Holy One, blessed be He, know where he came from SO THAT HE HAD TO ASK HIM? HE ANSWERS, Rather only to allow the matter to the wishes of the Satan, MEANING THAT WITH THESE WORDS HE GAVE HIM AN OPENING TO ACCUSE AS HE WISHES.
9. "And Hashem said to the Adversary... Then the Adversary answered Hashem and said, 'From going to and fro in the earth'" (Iyov 1:7). From here I learned that the settling of the earth is given over to Others Side, NAMELY THE SEVENTY NATIONS, except for the Land of Yisrael exclusively, WHICH IS SECURED IN HOLINESS FOR THE CHILDREN OF YISRAEL. THEREFORE, since he said, "From going to and fro in the earth," THE WORD "EARTH" IS UNSPECIFIED AND MEANS THE LAND OF YISRAEL. The Holy One, blessed be He, saw that the Satan wanted to slander Yisrael AND NOT JOB OR OTHERS WHO WERE CONSIDERED OF THE NATIONS WHO INHABIT THE OTHER LANDS. Immediately, "Hashem said to the Adversary, 'Have you considered my servant Job, that there is none like him on earth...'" (Ibid. 8).
10. He saw THAT NOW WAS the opportune time to give THE SATAN a portion with which to be occupied, so he would be kept afar from Yisrael. They explained this to be similar to a shepherd who wanted to get his sheep across a river WHEN A WOLF CAME TO ATTACK THE SHEEP. WHAT DOES AN EXPERIENCED SHEPHERD DO? HE TAKES A BIG HE-GOAT AND GIVES IT TO THE WOLF, SAYING: LET HIM FIGHT WITH THE HE-GOAT UNTIL I LET MY SHEEP CROSS OVER THE RIVER AND THEN I WILL RETURN AND TAKE THIS ONE ALSO. THE HOLY ONE, BLESSED BE HE, DID LIKEWISE. HE GAVE JOB TO THE ADVERSARY TO BE OCCUPIED WITH SO HE WOULD NOT ACCUSE YISRAEL. Immediately, the Satan busied himself with him and did not accuse Yisrael.