351. Rabbi Yehuda said TO RABBI SHIMON, Let my master say some beautiful things about Rosh Hashanah. Rabbi Shimon began by quoting: "Allow there was (Heb. vayehi) a day" (Iyov 1:6). Wherever it is written: vayehi, it is A TERM OF anguish. "Now there was a day" refers to anguish. Certainly "Now there was a day" refers to a day on which there is anguish, and this is Rosh Hashanah, a day on which there is harsh Judgment on the world. SIMILARLY: "And it happened one day, that Elisha passed to Shunem" (II Melachim 4:8) was on the day of Rosh Hashanah. And wherever it is said "And it happened one day" the day referred to is Rosh Hashanah. CONSEQUENTLY, "Now there was a day when the sons of the Elohim came" (Iyov 1:6) refers to the day of Rosh Hashanah.
352. Rosh Hashanah always lasts for two days. What is the reason for this? It is so that Isaac, WHO IS THE LEFT COLUMN, WHICH IS THE ASPECT OF ROSH HASHANAH, should be composed of Judgment and Mercy, WHICH ARE two days, and ISAAC WILL not BE JUST one. For WERE ISAAC TO BE just one, WITHOUT THE INCLUSION OF MERCY, he would destroy the world, and this is why it is written IN JOB twice: "Now there was a day" (Iyov 1:6; 2:1).
353. "the sons of the Elohim came:" These are certainly the supreme court, the sons of the Elohim, before whom the children of the King, NAMELY YISRAEL, draw near. And they are the seventy officials who always surround the King, and they decree sentences on the world. "to present themselves before (lit. 'upon') Hashem:" HE ASKS, do they stand upon Hashem? HE ANSWERS, No, but when they stand to judge THE WORLD, the first to be judged is the one who does not honor the Holy Name and does not respect the Torah and His servants. So, too, whoever is not concerned about the honor of the Holy Name, WHICH IS THE SHECHINAH, that it be not desecrated on earth, and whoever is not concerned over the honor of the Holy One, blessed be He, WHO IS ZEIR ANPIN, he does not give honor to this Name. "and the adversary came also amongst them" (Ibid.): "also" adds the female of the adversary, LILIT. And so it is here: "to present themselves before Hashem" means that the Satan, too, was concerned for the honor of this Name, THAT IS TO SAY, HE CAME TO INCITE AGAINST IT.