463. "And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born to Abraham, mocking" (Beresheet 21:9). Rabbi Chiya said, From that day when Isaac was born, Ishmael was not mentioned by his name as long as he was still present in the house of Abraham. This is because in the presence of gold, refuse cannot be mentioned. Why is it written, "The son of Hagar the Egyptian" AND NOT "ISHMAEL THE SON OF HAGAR?' Because his name should not be mentioned in the presence of Isaac.
464. Rabbi Yitzchak said, "And Sarah saw." She looked at him disdainfully, as she did not look at him as the son of Abraham, but rather as the son of Hagar the Egyptian. Thus, it is written, "And Sarah saw," because only Sarah saw him this way, not Abraham. So with Abraham, it is not written, 'the son of Hagar,' but "his son."
465. Come and behold. After this, it is written, "And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's eyes because of his son" (Beresheet 21:11). It is not written, 'because of the son of Hagar the Egyptian.' And in contrast to this, it is written, "And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian," as she did not see him as the 'son of Abraham.'
466. Rabbi Shimon said, This passage shows that Sarah is praiseworthy. Because she saw him participating in idolatrous practices, she said, This boy is definitely not the son of Abraham, who shall follow the example of Abraham. Rather, he is the son of Hagar the Egyptian, as he has returned to his mother's way of life. Because of this, "She said to Abraham, 'Cast out this bondwoman and her son, for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, with Yitzchak'" (Ibid. 10).
467. Now Sarah was not jealous or envious of her or her son. If she were, the Holy One, blessed be He, would not have supported her with the words, "in all that Sarah says to you, hearken to her voice" (Beresheet 21:12). In fact, it was only because she saw him indulging in idolatrous practices and his mother teaching him the laws of idol worshipping that she said, "For the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir." I know that he shall never inherit a portion of the Faith, and he shall have no share with my son, not in this world and not in the World to Come. And this is why the Holy One, blessed be He, supported her.
468. And the Holy One, blessed be He, wanted the Holy Seed separated, for that was why He created the world. Yisrael was already in the mind of the Holy One, blessed be He, even before He created the world. This is why Abraham appeared in the world, which continued to exist because of him. So Abraham and Isaac remained insecurely in their places, until Jacob appeared in the world.
469. As soon as Jacob came into the world, Abraham and Isaac were established, as was the whole world. From there, FROM JACOB, the Holy Nation was born in a holy way. This is why the Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, "In all that Sarah says to you, hearken to her voice, for in Isaac shall your seed be called" - and not in Ishmael.
470. After this, it is written, "And she departed and wandered in the wilderness of Be'er Sheva" (Beresheet 21:14). It is written here, "and wandered (Heb. vateta) in the wilderness," and elsewhere it is written, "They are vanity, and the works of delusion (Heb. ta'atu'im)" (Yirmeyah 10:15). FROM THIS WE LEARN BY ANALOGY THAT BECAUSE IT REFERS TO IDOL WORSHIPPING IN THE LATTER VERSE, SO IT REFERS TO IDOL WORSHIPPING IN THE FORMER. And for the sake of Abraham, the Holy One, blessed be He, did not abandon her and her son, BUT SAVED THEM FROM THIRST, EVEN THOUGH SHE INDULGED IN IDOL WORSHIPPING.
471. Come and behold. In the beginning, when she ran away from Sarah, it is written, "Because Hashem has heard your affliction" (Beresheet 16:11). Now, however, that she went astray and followed idolatrous practices, even though it is written, "And she lifted up her voice, and wept" (Beresheet 21:16), "Elohim heard the voice of the lad" (Ibid. 17), instead of, 'And Elohim heard your voice.'
472. The words "where he is" (Ibid.) have already been explained. ISHMAEL was not yet punishable by the heavenly Court of Judgment. At the earthly Court of Judgment, a person can be punished after the age of thirteen, but at the heavenly Court of Judgment, a person must be at least twenty years of age to be punished. AS A RESULT, even though he was wicked, he was too young to be punished. This is why it is written, "where he is," WHICH MEANS THAT BECAUSE HE WAS YOUNGER THAN TWENTY YEARS OF AGE, THE HOLY ONE, BLESSED BE HE, SPARED HIS LIFE.