1. "Give ear, O heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth" (Devarim 32:1). Rabbi Yehuda opened with, "I opened to my beloved; but my beloved had turned away, and was gone...I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer" (Shir Hashirim 5:6). Before that it is written, "I sleep, but my heart wakes..." (Ibid. 2). "I sleep," says the Congregation of Yisrael, "I sleep" away from the commandments of the Torah when I traveled the wilderness; "but my heart wakes" to bring them to the land of Yisrael to legislate laws for them. For all the commandments of the Torah are present in the land of Yisrael. "hark, my beloved is knocking" (Ibid.) refers to Moses, who reproved Yisrael with many arguments and quarrels, as it is written, "These are the words..." (Devarim 1:1), "You have been rebellious" (Devarim 9:24), and, "Also in Horeb you provoked..." (Ibid. 8). This is the meaning of, "knocking."
2. Though Moses reproved Yisrael, all his words were with love, as it is written, "For you are a holy people to Hashem your Elohim. Hashem your Elohim has chosen you to be a special people to Himself..." (Devarim 7:6), "You are the children of Hashem your Elohim" (Devarim 14:1), "But you that did cleave" (Devarim 4:4). Therefore, "obey the voice of Hashem your Elohim" (Devarim 27:10), "because Hashem loved you" (Devarim 7:8). This is the meaning of, "Open to me, my sister, my love" (Shir Hashirim 5:2), SPOKEN AFFECTIONATELY.
3. It is written, "I rose up to open to my beloved" (Ibid. 4). Yisrael said, while we were ready to enter the land of Yisrael and accept the commandments of the Torah through Moses, it is written, "but my beloved had turned away, and was gone," as it is written, "So Moses the servant of Hashem died there" (Devarim 34:5). "I sought him, but I could not find him," as it is written, "And there arose not a prophet since in Yisrael like Moses" (Ibid. 10). "I called him, but he gave me no answer," since there was no generation like the generation of Moses that the Holy One, blessed be He, obeyed their voices and performed miracles and made laws for them, as He did through him.
4. Rabbi Yitzchak said, "I rose up to open to my beloved" refers to the Holy One, blessed be He, during the life of Moses, who refused all his days to be guided by an angel or messenger, as it is written, "If Your presence go not with me..." (Shemot 33:15). Blessed is the portion of Moses that the Holy One, blessed be He, approved of his desire. "But my beloved had turned away, and was gone," during the life of Joshua, as it is written, "No, but I am captain of the host of Hashem" (Yehoshua 5:14).
5. Come and see, Moses used to hear the holy sound of the supernal King yet did not tremble, nor did he tremble before an angel, whom he did not wish TO ACCEPT. After he died, it is written, "And he said, No, but I am captain of the host of Hashem...And Joshua fell on his face to the earth." "I am now come" (Ibid.), during the days of Moses your master, yet I was not accepted. At that time, Yisrael recognized the value of Moses. At that time Yisrael sought the Holy One, blessed be He, but He was not as available as during Moses' lifetime. This is the meaning of, "I sought him, but I could not find him..."
6. "Give ear, O heavens, and I will speak." Rabbi Chiya said, Moses' portion is blessed above that of any prophet in the world. Come and see, it is written, "Hear, heavens, and give ear, earth, for Hashem has spoken" (Yeshayah 1:2). "Hear, heavens:" it is written in Isaiah, who was further away from the King, "Hear, heavens." As for Moses, who was nearer to the King, it is written, "Give ear, O heavens."
7. We learned that when Isaiah said, "Hear, heavens, and give ear, earth," many prosecutors came to break his head. A voice resounded, saying, Who is that who wishes to shake worlds! Then he opened with the words, It is not I nor is it mine, but, "Hashem has spoken" and not I. Of Moses it is written, "Give ear, O (lit. 'the') heavens, and I will speak," I and no other. "I will speak" without fear, "and hear O (lit. 'the'), earth, the words of my mouth" and not anybody else's. Blessed is his portion. Rabbi Aba said, In the engraved letters of Rabbi Elazar HE SAID, In "Give (spelled with Vav) ear, the (Heb. Hei) heavens, and (Heb. Vav) I will speak; and hear, the (Heb. Hei) earth" the holy, supernal Name is alluded to, NAMELY YUD HEI VAV HEI.
8. Rabbi Yosi said, Another difference between Moses and Isaiah is that Moses said, "Hear, the heavens" WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, "the heavens," namely the supernal heavens, those known to be called the Name of the Holy One, blessed be He. "and hear, the earth" is the supernal earth, the one known to be the land of the living, NAMELY MALCHUT. In Isaiah it is written, "Hear, heavens," instead of "the heavens," because these are the lower heavens and earth. Nevertheless, they wanted to punish him until he said, "for Hashem has spoken" and not I. Moses spoke much more, as it is written, "Give ear, the heavens, and I will speak; and hear, the earth, the words of my mouth," WHO ARE ZEIR ANPIN AND MALCHUT. HE DID NOT FEAR, AND NONE WANTED TO PUNISH HIM.
9. Rabbi Yitzchak opened with, "Like the apple tree..." (Shir Hashirim 2:3). Happy is the portion of Yisrael more than all the idolatrous nations, because all the other nations were handed to appointed ministers to control them. As for holy Yisrael, happy is their portion in this world and in the World to Come that the Holy One, blessed be He, gave them neither to an angel nor to another ruler, but took them for His own portion. This is the meaning of, "For Hashem's portion is His people" (Devarim 32:9), and, "For Hashem has chosen Jacob to Himself" (Tehilim 135:4). "Like the apple tree among the trees of the wood:" just as the apple tree is different in color from all the other trees in the field, so is the Holy One, blessed be He, separated and marked above all higher and lower legions. Hence His name is Hashem Tzva'ot, WHICH MEANS He is a sign (Heb. ot) throughout the celestial army (Heb. tzava).
10. Come and see, the Holy One, blessed be He is like an apple that has in it three colors, WHITE, RED AND GREEN THAT INDICATE CHESED, GVURAH AND TIFERET. The Congregation of Yisrael, WHO IS MALCHUT, is like a lily. What is a lily? Rabbi Aba said, It is a generic lily, a lily of six petals. The colors of such a lily are white and red, and it is all of two colors, red and white THAT INDICATE JUDGMENT AND CHESED. Such is the Congregation of Yisrael, WHO IS MALCHUT.