236. "And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Yisrael" (Beresheet 36:31). Rabbi Yesa began the discussion with the verse, "Behold, I will make you small among the nations, you are greatly despised" (Ovadyah 1:2). Come and behold, when the Holy One, blessed be He, created the world, He divided the earth into seven regions that correspond to the seventy ministers APPOINTED OVER THE NATIONS. THESE ARE THE SECRET OF THE EXTERIOR - CHESED, GVURAH, TIFERET, NETZACH, HOD, YESOD AND MALCHUT - EACH CONSISTING OF TEN AND THEREBY TOTALING SEVENTY. The Holy One, blessed be He, appointed THE SEVENTY MINISTERS over the seventy nations, each according to its worth, as it is written, "When the most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Yisrael " (Devarim 32:8).
237. Among all the ministers appointed over the nations, no one is as despised before THE HOLY ONE, BLESSED BE HE, as Esau's minister, because Esau represents the Side of Defilement, which is despicable before the Holy One, blessed be He. ESAU'S MINISTER was issued from the small grades behind the millstones. From the emptiness of the red sides came THE MINISTER OF ESAU. Therefore it is written, "Behold, I will make you small among the nations, you are greatly despised," which has the same meaning as "upon your belly shall you go, and dust shall you eat all the days of your life" (Beresheet 3:14), 'greatly' resembles the words, "You are cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field" (Ibid.).
238. Come and behold, within the lower grades, there are grades upon grades that are all different than each other. Yet, they are both detached from and attached to each other IN SUCH A WAY THAT Malchut OF EACH OF THE GRADES is separated, yet each Malchut is interconnected to Malchut. THE REASON IS THAT as one enters, another ascends and thus, they are united by a bond.
239. This bond has one level OF THE CENTRAL COLUMN. Each level contains three bonds; AS THE CENTRAL COLUMN CONTAINS ALL THREE COLUMNS; each bond contains one crown, NAMELY, THE CROWN REFERRED TO IN THE VERSE, "THE CROWN WITH WHICH HIS MOTHER CROWNED HIM" (SHIR HASHIRIM 3:11). And in every crown there is a singular force of command.
240. THE FORCE OF COMMAND was assigned by being crowned from above, and assigned to descend until the stars and constellations are attached to it. Every FORCE OF COMMAND IN EACH OF THE THREE CROWNS contains one star and one constellation. Because all the stars are connected to the upper grades, AND THE CONSTELLATIONS TO THE LOWER GRADES, each grade is crowned in certain places, according to its INDIVIDUAL worth.
241. When the grades diverge, they form a disrupting link, until it is connected to its worthy place, and the aspects of the defiled grades of the left side all diverge into several ways and paths of the aspects of the red Gvurot THAT RUN FROM BINAH, THE SECRET OF RED, and because lower Gvurot are counted below by the myriads, then "Behold, I will make you small among the nations, you are greatly despised."
242. Come and behold, "And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom." " ...The land ..." is the side of Esau's grade, as it is written, "Esau, who is Edom." All THESE KINGS came from the side of the unclean spirit. " ...before there reigned any king over the children of Yisrael" refers to these grades OF ESAU, which stand at the lower gates and are the first TO BE PERFECTED. The reason Jacob said, "Let my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant" (Beresheet 33:14), is that Esau's grades are the first to enter AND BE PERFECTED, FOR THE LOWER GRADES ARE CORRECTED FIRST AND THE HIGHER GRADES LATER. They were, therefore, "before there reigned any king over the children of Yisrael," for the time had not come for the Kingdom of Heaven to rule and join hands with the children of Yisrael. He therefore said, "Let my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant."
243. After these grades are perfected, the Kingdom of Heaven will be aroused to rule over the lower beings. Its rulership shall start with Benjamin, the youngest of the tribes, NAMELY, WITH SAUL WHO IS OF THE TRIBE OF BENJAMIN. This is the meaning of the verse, "There is Benjamin, the youngest, ruling them" (Tehilim 68: 28). The Kingdom began to take root in him, later coming into its own place, TO KING DAVID, to be established and never to depart.