Rabbi Shimon says that God ordered the Congregation of Yisrael to inform a man with their judgments of any sin that he has committed. Whenever a man sins but does not repent before God, his very soul rises and testifies before God. When the Congregation of Yisrael judges a man, his spirit awakens to do penance before God, and so he is humbled and brings an offering. Rabbi Shimon offers the additional explanation that a man who rises up at night to study the Torah is informed of his sin by the Torah, as a mother who tells her child with soothing words; then he repents on his own. We are also informed why David was punished through his son, Absalom.