367. "And Hashem visited Sarah as He had said..." (Beresheet 21:1) Rabbi Chiya opened the discussion with the verse, "And he showed me Joshua the High Priest standing before the angel of Hashem, and the Satan standing at his right to prosecute him" (Zecharyah 3:1). This passage should be studied carefully. "And he showed me Joshua the High Priest" refers to Joshua, the son of Yehotzadak. In the phrase, "standing before the angel of Hashem," who is the "angel of Hashem?" It is the region THAT IS CALLED the Bundle,' TO WHICH the souls of the righteous are attached. And all the souls of the righteous are there. This is the "angel of Hashem," WHICH IS MENTIONED IN THE VERSE.
368. The phrase, "and the Satan standing at his right to prosecute him," refers to the Evil Inclination, which roams the world snatching souls and taking spirits FROM HUMAN BEINGS by bringing accusations against humankind, above as well as below. This occurred when Nebuchadnezzar cast JOSHUA, THE HIGH PRIEST, into the fire, together with all the false prophets. At that time, the Satan brought accusations against him above, so that he would be burned with them.
369. This is the way OF THE SATAN, who shows his indictment at the hour of danger or when the world is in distress. At those times, he is allowed to prosecute and punish, even without justice, as it is written, "But sometimes ruin comes for want of judgment" (Mishlei 13:23). What is meant by "to prosecute him"? IN OTHER WORDS, WHAT DID HE ACCUSE HIM OF? He was asking that they all be saved or all be burned. When the Angel of Destruction is granted permission to destroy, the righteous are in as much danger as the wicked.
370. Therefore, when Judgment hangs over a city, a man should flee before he is captured there AND FALLS INTO THE HANDS OF THE DESTROYER. Once the Angel of Destruction resides IN A PLACE, he treats the righteous the same as the wicked. All the more so, as all three of them were together. THIS REFERS TO JOSHUA, THE HIGH PRIEST, AND THE OTHER TWO FALSE PROPHETS - AHAB, THE SON OF KOLYAH, AND TZIDKIYAHU, THE SON OF MA'ASSIYAH. THE SATAN demanded that all be burned or all be saved, because if a miracle is to occur, there cannot be half a miracle. It must be the same for all - either miracle or Judgment.
371. Rabbi Yosi said to him, That is not so. For when the Holy One, blessed be He, split the sea for Yisrael, He divided the sea only for those, NAMELY, THE CHILDREN OF YISRAEL. They walked on dry land while the waters came together again and drowned the others, NAMELY, THE EGYPTIANS who perished. So there was a miracle on one side and judgment on the other, EVEN THOUGH they both occurred together.
372. He said to him, This is why THE SPLITTING OF THE RED SEA was so difficult for Him. When the Holy One, blessed be He, simultaneously performs a miracle and executes His Judgment, it does not usually happen in the same place, nor even in the same house. If it occurs IN THE SAME PLACE, AS HAPPENED AT THE RED SEA, then it is difficult for Him. In Heaven, everything is done to perfection. EVERYTHING IS as one and at one place - either a miracle or doom, but not usually half and half, HALF MIRACLE AND HALF DOOM.
373. This is why the Holy One, blessed be He, does not punish the guilty until they have all filled their measure of sin. THIS WAY, HE DOES NOT HAVE TO SAVE ANY OF THEM FROM PUNISHMENT. As it is written, "for the iniquity of the Emorites is not yet full" (Beresheet 15:16), and "You should punish it in exact measure" (Yeshayah 27:8). Therefore, THE SATAN demanded that Joshua be burned together with the rest, SO THERE WOULD NOT BE HALF MIRACLE ANDHALF DOOM, until he said to him, "May Hashem rebuke you, Satan" (Zecharyah 3:2). AND HE ASKS, Who said to him, "May HASHEM REBUKE YOU, SATAN?" AND HE REPLIES, It was the Angel of Hashem WHO SAID SO.
374. You may say that since IT IS WRITTEN, "And Hashem said to the Satan, Hashem rebuke you, Satan," THEREFORE IT IS HASHEM WHO SAYS SO, AND NOT AN ANGEL. Come and behold, the same is true of Moses in the bush, about which it is written, "And the angel of Hashem appeared to him in a flame of fire" (Shemot 3:2) and, "And when Hashem saw that he turned aside to see" (Ibid. 4). Sometimes IT IS WRITTEN, "The angel of Hashem," sometimes "an angel," and sometimes, "Hashem." THEREFORE, HERE AS BEFORE, "AND HASHEM SAID TO THE SATAN" MAY REFER TO AN ANGEL, AS WITH MOSES. This is why he said to him, "May Hashem rebuke you, Satan" rather than 'I hereby rebuke you, Satan.' HAD IT BEEN HASHEM WHO HAD SAID THIS, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN WRITTEN, 'I HEREBY REBUKE YOU, SATAN.' THEREFORE, WE CONCLUDE THAT THE ONE WHO SAID THIS WAS AN ANGEL.
375. Come and behold, the same applies when Judgment hangs over the world, and the Holy One, blessed be He, sits upon the Throne of Judgment. Then the Satan, who accuses above and below, comes to destroy the world and snatch away the souls OF HUMAN BEINGS, BECAUSE THE SATAN IS ALSO THE ANGEL OF DEATH, AS IS ALREADY KNOWN.