Mishpatim: Chapter 15

The order of laws in Tractate Nezikin (cause of injuries)


Here we learn about the judgments regarding the laws of damage; the four primary causes of injury are the ox, the pit, crop destroying beast, and fire. Lastly there is man, who is always prone to harm. Moses says that the letters of Adonai, when rearranged, form Dina, which is judgment. All judgments are executed by that Name. Moses lists other laws which require judgment, and he talks about damage, idleness, shame and weakness. We are reminded of the blessings that were stolen from Yisrael through heavy tax burdens, different kinds of harsh judgments, and Temple sacrifices deprived from the Shechinah. The bull that has gored thrice has devastated everything with sin and destruction, anger and wrath. Moses also speaks about the exile of the children of Yisrael. He tells us that there are angels that serve the body, and angels that serve the soul, and there is a difference between them. Every lower level receives from the higher. In man there is division between body and soul, one being material and the other mental, one being Life and the other Death. But the Holy One, blessed be He, is Life and His Shechinah is also Life.