814. "And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month," which is Tishrei, "you shall have a holy gathering; you shall do no servile work, and you shall keep a feast to Hashem seven days" (Bemidbar 29:12). On the fifteenth day means from the side of Yud Hei, NAMELY, CHOCHMAH AND BINAH. "and you shall keep a feast"; THIS IS THE LETTERS OF the letter Vav, which is the Central Pillar, NAMELY, ZEIR ANPIN. Seven days is from the side of Bathsheba (the daughter of seven), which is Malchut WHICH IS THE LAST HEI. The patriarchs, WHICH ARE CHESED, GVURAH AND TIFERET, and the Faithful Shepherd WHO IS NETZACH, and Aaron WHO IS HOD, and David WHO IS MALCHUT, and Solomon (Heb. shlomo), WHO IS YESOD THAT IS CALLED 'SHALOM' (ENG. 'PEACE'), are seven, corresponding to seven Sfirot. I want to construct for you a Sukkah, which is supernal Ima, who will provide a shelter over them, OVER THE SEVEN SFIROT, as the mother over the young.
815. And on account of the seven Sfirot, Scripture said: "I made the children of Yisrael to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt" (Vayikra 23:43), namely, with seven clouds of glory, WHICH ARE THE SECRET OF SEVEN SFIROT. Sukkah (Eng. 'booth' or 'tabernacle') WHEN SPELLED with a letter Vav, is in the secret of the two young, OVER WHOM BINAH PROVIDES A SHELTER, NAMELY, Yud Hei Vav Hei and Adonai, NAMELY, ZEIR ANPIN AND MALCHUT, for the numerical value of Sukkah amounts to Yud-Aleph-Hei-Dalet-Vav-Nun-Hei-Yud, FOR SUKKAH (SAMECH VAV CAF HEI) CONSISTS OF THE LETTERS CAF VAV, WHICH HAVE THE SAME NUMERICAL VALUE AS THE LETTERS OF YUD HEI VAV HEI, AND THE LETTERS SAMECH HEI, WHICH HAVE THE SAME NUMERICAL VALUE AS ADONAI. AND THEY ARE THE SECRET OF the two Cherubs who are "overspreading the covering with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another" (Shemot 25:20), WHO ARE THE SECRET OF ZEIR ANPIN AND MALCHUT.
816. And the Cherubs, WHO ARE MALE AND FEMALE, are ten handbreadths from bottom to top, NAMELY, TEN SFIROT OF RETURNING LIGHT, from their feet to their heads, AND TEN SFIROT OF DIRECT LIGHT from their heads to their feet, and they rest on a handbreadth, which is THE SECRET OF Yud. THEY THEREFORE CONTAIN ten from top to bottom and ten from bottom to top, NAMELY, THE TEN SFIROT OF DIRECT LIGHT AND THE TEN SFIROT OF RETURNING LIGHT, and this is Yud-Vav-Dalet, WHOSE NUMERICAL SUM IS TWENTY. And this is why the sages ruled that the size of a Sukkah should be not less than ten and not more than twenty. A Sukkah that is built in the shape of a furnace is from the side of Ima, WHICH IS JUDGMENT, about which it is said: "And Mount Sinai smoked in every part, because Hashem descended on it in fire: and the smoke of it ascended like the smoke of a furnace" (Shemot 19:18), and it is all one.
817. "And there shall be a tabernacle for a shadow in the daytime" (Yeshayah 4:6). This is because a roof is required, and this casts a shadow, about which it is said: "shall abide under the shadow of Shadai" (Tehilim 91:1). And the meaning is not to the shadow cast by an ordinary Sukkah that protects the body from the sun, but to the shadow that casts a protection over the Soul. THIS IS IN THE SECRET OF THE VERSE "I sat down under its shadow with great delight" (Shir Hashirim 2:3) and "Of Whom we said: 'Under His shadow we shall live among the nations'" (Eichah 4:20). The word tzel (lit. 'shadow') with a final letter Mem added to it forms the word tzelem (Eng. 'image'), WHERE TZEL IS THE SECRET OF THE ROOFING MATERIAL AND THE FINAL MEM IS THE SECRET OF THE FOUR SIDE-WALLS OF THE SUKKAH, and it is said: "Surely every man walks in a vain show (Heb. tzelem)" (Tehilim 39:7). Closed Mem has four sides to it, WHICH ARE THE SECRET OF THE FOUR SIDE-WALLS OF THE SUKKAH.
818. And with regard to the teaching: Two according to the regulations, and a third of even a handbreadth; and of him who says three according to the regulations, and a fourth of even a handbreadth: that is because OF THE THREE MEASUREMENTS, two, three, four, which TOGETHER MAKE nine, WHERE TWO ARE CHOCHMAH AND BINAH, THREE ARE CHESED, GVURAH AND TIFERET, AND FOUR ARE NETZACH, HOD, YESOD AND MALCHUT. And the handbreadth MENTIONED WITH THE TWO OR WITH THE THREE is the tenth, NAMELY, MALCHUT, that makes up every shortage. And this is why the size of a Sukkah is not less than ten, referring to Malchut, which is the tenth of all the Sfirot, and not more than twenty, which is Caf (the numerical value of which is twenty), THAT ALLUDES TO upper Keter, which is further than the eye can see AND IS UNFATHOMABLE. This is that upper glory, about which Moses said: "I pray You, show me Your glory" (Shemot 33:18), to which the Holy One, blessed be He, responded: "you can not see My face" (Ibid. 20), and there is no glory (Heb. kavod) without Caf.
819. And for this reason the sages of the Mishnah viewed as corresponding to them: a Sukkah made like an alleyway, which is from the side of the letter Bet, and in the shape of a right angle, which is from the side of the letter Gimel, and like a hut which is from the side of the letter Dalet. And these seven letters Bet, Gimel, Dalet, Caf, Pe, Resh and Tav WHICH ARE DOUBLED BY THE ADDITION OF A DAGESH (A DOT) IN THEM, ALLUDE TO THE SEVEN SFIROT CHESED, GVURAH, TIFERET, NETZACH, HOD, YESOD AND MALCHUT, NAMELY, DUE TO THE ASPECT OF JUDGMENT THAT IS IN THEM. AND THEY ARE THE INITIAL LETTERS THAT ALLUDE TO THE SEVEN SUKKAHS MADE INVALID, BECAUSE OF THE JUDGMENT THAT IS IN THEM. Caf ALLUDES TO A SUKKAH MADE like a furnace (Heb. kivshan), AND Bet TO A SUKKAH that is a wayside station (Heb. burganin), and THE OTHER LETTERS to the remaining INVALID Sukahs, all of which are referred to by the sages of the Mishnah, SUCH AS THE SUKKAH OF FRUIT (HEB. PEROT) WATCHMEN, THE SUKKAH OF SHEPHERDS (HEB. RO'IM), OR THE SUKKAH OF SAMARITANS (HEB. KUTIM), and there is no need to prolong the discussion on them.
820. And corresponding to them, TO THE SEVEN LETTERS BET, GIMEL, DALET, CAF, PE, RESH AND TAV are the seven planets, and they are male and female, FOR WHEN THESE SEVEN LETTERS ARE WEAK THEY ARE OF THE MALE AND WHEN THEY ARE STRONG (WITH A DAGESH) THEY ARE OF THE FEMALE. And they are therefore called 'the seven double letters' and are like the seven candles of the candelabrum, WHICH ARE THE SECRET OF THE SEVEN SFIROT CHESED, GVURAH, TIFERET, NETZACH, HOD, YESOD AND MALCHUT, and it is said about it: "Seven times a day I praise You" (Tehilim 119:164). And so IT IS SAID: "and seven pipes to the seven lamps, which were upon the top of it" (Zecharyah 4:2), WHICH ARE THE SECRET OF THE SEVEN DOUBLE LETTERS, NAMELY, THE SEVEN LETTERS IN THEIR WEAK FORM AND THE SEVEN LETTERS IN THEIR STRONG FORM, and likewise, the seven Sfirot are double, CONTAINING SEVEN OF JUDGMENT AND SEVEN OF MERCY. And so, too, are the seven days of Creation below, NAMELY, THE SEVEN SFIROT OF MALCHUT, WHICH HAVE A DAGESH WITH JUDGMENTS, and the seven above, NAMELY, THE SEVEN SFIROT OF ZEIR ANPIN, WHICH ARE WEAK IN JUDGMENTS. FOR ABOUT THE SEVEN SFIROT THAT ARE BELOW, IT IS SAID: "and there is nothing new under the sun" (Kohelet 1:9), FOR ALL INNOVATIONS COME FROM THE SUN, NAMELY THE SEVEN SFIROT OF ZEIR ANPIN AND NOT FROM UNDER THE SUN, BY WHICH IS MEANT THE SEVEN SFIROT OF MALCHUT.
821. Lulav is the Righteous, NAMELY, YESOD, for the Lulav is like the spinal chord that contains eighteen vertebrae, corresponding to the eighteen shaking movements with the Lulav. And they correspond to the eighteen blessings of the Amidah prayer, and they correspond to the eighteen mentions, NAMELY, THE NAMES OF YUD HEI VAV HEI, in "Ascribe to Hashem, O you mighty" (Tehilim 29:1), and the eighteen times that the Name is mentioned in the reading of Sh'ma. And the Lulav is shaken in six directions: SOUTH, NORTH, EAST, UP, DOWN AND WEST, which makes six, and it is shaken three times in each direction, MAKING a total of eighteen.
822. The lulav IS TAKEN in the right HAND, and is comprised of six, namely three myrtle branches, CORRESPONDING TO Greatness, Gvurah, and Tiferet, and they are like the three colors in the eye, WHICH ARE WHITE, RED, AND GREEN. And the two willow twigs are Netzach and Hod, and they are similar to the two lips. The Lulav IS Yesod and is like the spinal column that supports all the bones and about which David said: "All my bones shall say, Hashem, who is like You" (Tehilim 35:10). And the Etrog is Malchut and is like the heart, in which are thoughts.
823. And the shakings of the Halel are common to the shakings of the taking up of the Lulav, and there are eighteen SHAKINGS at "Save us, Hashem, we pray You" (Tehilim 118:25), eighteen each at the first and last "O, give thanks" (Ibid. 1 and 29), and eighteen at the taking up of the Lulav, making a total of 72 SHAKINGS. And this is why the numerical value of Lulav, which is 68, together with the four kinds of the Lulav, COMES TO 72, and this is the same as the numerical value of Chesed, which is the right arm. And this is why it was decreed that the Lulav be taken in the right hand, which is the side of Chesed, and the Etrog in the side of Gvurah, in the left, CORRESPONDING TO the heart. And this is why it was decreed that the Etrog, which is like the heart, be held in the left hand, as it has been taught: Lulav in the right hand and Etrog in the left, corresponding to 'Remember' and 'Keep'. And who is the one taking both LULAV AND ETROG is the Central Column, MEANING ZEIR ANPIN. The Lulav is his right, the Etrog is his left.