1. "And Moses went and spoke these words to all Yisrael" (Devarim 31:1). Rabbi Chizkiyah opened with the verse, "That caused His glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses, dividing the water before them..." (Yeshayah 63:12). Blessed are Yisrael that the Holy One, blessed be He, favored them. Since He favored them, He called them holy firstborn sons, and brethren. He, so to speak, went down to dwell with them. This is the meaning of, "And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them" (Shemot 25:8). And He wished to establish them in the likeness of above, and He caused the seven clouds of glory to rest over them, and His Shechinah goes before them, as it is written: "and Hashem went before them by day" (Shemot 13:21).
2. Three holy siblings went among them. They are Moses, Aaron and Miriam. It is for their merit that the Holy One, blessed be He, gave them supernal gifts. Throughout Aaron's days the clouds of glory did not move away from Yisrael. We have established that Aaron is the right arm of Yisrael, as it is written, "the Canaanite, the king of Arad...heard tell that Yisrael came by the way of Atarim..." (Bemidbar 21:1). THE WAY OF ATARIM MEANS THAT YISRAEL WERE like a man walking without an arm, supporting himself in each AND EVERY place, AS ATARIM MEANS PLACES. Then, "he fought against Yisrael, and took some of them prisoners" (Ibid.). THIS HAPPENED because they were without the right arm. Come and see, Aaron was the right arm of the body, WHICH IS TIFERET. Hence it is written, "That caused His glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses." Which is that? It is Aaron, THE RIGHT ARM OF TIFERET.
3. HE ASKS, What is meant by "went" in "And Moses went"? Whither did he go? AND HE ANSWERS, "went" MEANS HE WENT like an armless body, as in, "and they are gone without strength before the pursuer" (Eichah 1:6), because Aaron, the right arm, died, and the body, WHICH IS MOSES, wanted to go away BECAUSE OF IT.
4. Throughout Moses' life Yisrael ate bread from heaven. When Joshua came, it is written, "and the manna ceased on the morrow..." (Yehoshua 5:12), "And they did eat of the corn of the land on the morrow after the Passover" (Ibid. 11). What is the difference between them, THE MANNA AND THE CORN OF THE LAND? It is that the manna is from above, HEAVEN, WHICH IS ZEIR ANPIN, while that, THE BREAD OF THE LAND, is from below, FROM MALCHUT CALLED LAND. As long as Moses was alive, the body of the sun, WHICH IS ZEIR ANPIN, ruled and shone on the world. Once Moses departed, the body of the sun was gone, and the body of the moon came out, WHICH IS MALCHUT, THE ASPECT OF JOSHUA. THUS THE BREAD FROM HEAVEN STOPPED AND THEY ATE OF THE CORN OF THE LAND, WHICH IS MALCHUT.
5. It is written, "If Your presence go not with me, carry us not up from here. For in what shall it be known..." (Shemot 33:15-16). We have learned that when the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Moses, 'Behold My angel to walk before you,' Moses said, And why is it that the guidance of the sun shall be gathered, WHICH IS THE GUIDANCE OF ZEIR ANPIN, and the moon shall guide. I do not want the body of the moon, THE GUIDANCE OF MALCHUT CALLED AN ANGEL. AND HE SAID TO ZEIR ANPIN, "If Your presence go not with me, CARRY US NOT UP FROM HERE." I want neither the body of the sun, WHICH IS ZEIR ANPIN, nor the moon, WHICH IS MALCHUT. Then the body of the sun shone, and Moses became as the body of the sun before Yisrael. When Moses was gathered, the sun was gathered and the moon shone, which is Joshua ministering to the light of the moon. Woe to that shame.
6. "And he said to them, I am a hundred and twenty years old..." (Devarim 31:2). It is as Rabbi Elazar said that the sun shone on Yisrael for forty years and was gathered at the end of forty years and then the moon shone. HE THEREFORE SAID, "I CAN NO MORE GO OUT AND COME IN" (IBID.), BECAUSE THE TIME HAS COME FOR THE MOON TO RULE, WHICH IS THE ASPECT OF JOSHUA. Rabbi Shimon said, surely it is thus, as it is written, "but sometimes ruin comes for want of judgment" (Mishlei 13:23), which the friends have already explained, and we shall expound on this verse. But in relation to what the friends have said, everything is needed in the world for the good of man, who will be gone before his time, THAT IS, THAT HE IS RUINED WITHOUT JUDGMENT, AS SHALL BE EXPLAINED.
7. Come and see, we learned that all spirits that emerge from above come out male and female, and separate WHEN THEY COME INTO THE WORLD TO BE CLOTHED IN BODIES. At times the female soul will emerge into the world before THE SOUL OF the male has come out, who is her mate. Whenever it is not the time of the man to join his woman and another came, WHO IS NOT HER MATE, and married her, then when his, HER SOULMATE'S, time comes to unite with her, righteousness, WHICH IS THE ATTRIBUTE OF JUDGMENT, is awakened in the world to punish for the iniquities of the world. It gathers that man who married her, THAT IS, IT TAKES HIS SOUL SO HE DIES, and the other comes, WHO IS HER MATE, and marries her. This is why matching couples is difficult for the Holy One, blessed be He, LIKE THE SPLITTING OF THE RED SEA.
8. This is true if the man, WHO IS NOT HER MATE, sinned in his actions, THAT HE IS TAKEN OUT OF THE WORLD WHEN THE TIME HAS COME FOR HER MATE TO MARRY HER. Even if he did not sin much TO BE SENTENCED TO DEATH, NEVERTHELESS he dies then before his time comes TO DIE and it is not done so ACCORDING TO judgment. Of him it is written, "but sometimes ruin comes for want of judgment." The Judgments of righteousness, WHICH IS MALCHUT OF THE ATTRIBUTE OF JUDGMENT, contact him because of his sins, because the time of the other, HER MATE, has come to marry her, because she is his, EVEN THOUGH ACCORDING TO JUDGMENT HE DOES NOT DESERVE DEATH.
9. Rabbi Elazar said to him, And why DOES HE DIE? Let the Holy One, blessed be He, separate them from each other and let him WHO IS HER MATE come and marry her. He replied, It is for the good of man, and He does kindly by him, so he will not see his wife under someone else's authority. Come and see, if he, HER MATE, is not of fitting deeds, then even if the woman is his, NEVERTHELESS the other is not rejected, WHO IS NOT HER MATE, from before him.
10. Come and see, King Saul took the kingship because although the kingship was David's the time of David had not yet come for it. THEREFORE, when David's time had come to inherit his own, righteousness awoke and gathered Saul in his sins, and he was pushed aside before David. And David came and took what was his.